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domenica 19 gennaio 2014

The history of the city of Bejaia Bgayet candle and its region


The marabouts ,
There are marabouts in all the villages Kabyles . All families " marabout " say " Chorfa " came Sakiet El Hamra ( Morocco).
To understand the origin of this population , its spirit and its role should be back in the history of the Maghreb to identify events that had placed in these places.
After the war between the descendants of Sid Ali (son of the Prophet) , and the Caliph El Hadi , fleeing his pursuers , Idris succeeded at 172 ( 788-89 ) to get Oulili in the Maghreb El Achsah put under protection ( the Anaiah ) , the Berber tribe Auréba that his mother came from . He died in 793 , having conquered large areas and established the capital of his kingdom of Fez. To his son Idris II ( 793-828 ) , succeeded Muhammad ( 828-836 ) , who entrusted , on the advice of her grandmother Kenza (Berber of Auréba ), the Government of each of the nine provinces of his brothers and cousins. The central Maghreb whose headquarters were in Tlemcen fell to his cousin Aissa , son of Soleiman ben Abdellah (brother of ldris I) .
This decentralization of power has been the main cause of strife , fratricidal wars , the decline and fall of the dynasty Idrisid (1068) under the blows of the Almoravids (El Mourabitine ) after a century of existence. Family members Idris spread across the Maghreb. Ibn Khaldun reports that " Ibn Hamza said that the members of the" family Idris were numerous in the Maghreb and that they had " founded several kingdoms , but adds all their power " has disappeared and there remains only one of its leaders . The same author , "noted that Hamza , the only place in the province of Bejaia " called Souk - Hamza ( Bouira ) name, did not belong to the "family Idrissid , but the Arab tribe of Soleim . Djouher " El General Moezz (El Fatimi ) has transported the children of Hamza " El Idrissi in Kairouan , but several members continued to live " scattered in the mountains and among the Berbers of the Maghreb " [21]
There is still very little compared to the countless families marabout who call themselves " Chorfa ." The true descendants of Idris, whatever the political vicissitudes , retained their prestige as descendants of the Prophet, their wealth and social status. The governments that have followed have always been surrounded by respect , and sometimes used in their services as Mufti , Imam , Cadi, etc ...
The great mass of families " marabout " actually raised him from various sources. In fact, when the Almoravids began their political and religious activities , and following their victories over Idrissids settled in central Morocco and Maghreb , and their followers , supporters or officials have been called " El Mourabitine " c ie , the " Party in charge of the mission. " Almohads new winners " party unity " on several occasions, they seized their territories which won in slavery or exile. Many of these Almoravids, some fleeing repression , the other in solidarity with their "brothers" , he left the country . A number of them went to the South, where a rally was made Sakiet -el- Hamra around the Ribat . From there, individually or in groups , they went north of Central Maghreb , where they settled , either by accident or as a result of a choice. The locals called " El Jadida " , the name of the party to which they belonged , or pretended to be .
It was written Auguste Court of countries that had " marabouts provide specialty . Persons Figuig Revel " in the exercise of letters who learn in Fez, then, when someone came to the end of his studies he returned to Numidia and the Kabyle mountains , was imam , preacher, teacher. This was another source of origin of the marabouts Southwest that have invaded the Algerian Tell shortly before the conquest " turkish ... [22 ]
To get the mysterious writes Marmol , they reported coming " country " far West (so that no one can control their words ) Sakiet el Hamra " [23 ] - were in fact expelled from Morocco Atlas Berbers from their conquerors.
Some individuals among those taking advantage of the confusion , by exploiting the gullibility and ignorance of the masses, he surrounds himself with a bunch of mysteries, is imposed by their strangeness : derwiches , screamers , writers amulets , preachers, editors potions , wizards, and so on. .. Often the laying out of the country to receive the absolute discretion of men and women all the time , they were engaged in their financial machinations , intrigue , etc ... under the guise of religion , and other healers. After a while ' , allied themselves with local families among the most honorable. So they acquired the protection of the clan, and soon the goods to prevail in the business world , and their descendants have preserved the "place" experience, they did continue in local tradition.
It was not always so , some fraternities [*] sent missionaries in the mountains Kabyle " Merabitines " responsible for the teaching of the Qur'an and spread their doctrine often were , is the creation of a family home and a core disciples. With their knowledge , wisdom , simplicity, has acquired such fame that came from afar to consult on disputes of a religious nature and were sent their children to learn the Islamic sciences in their Zouaoua generally built Khouan community . Respected in their lives, have been revered for their death their graves or mausoleum , surrounded by legends , has become a place of pilgrimage. Their descendants who followed the same path , called " Ahl el ilm " , maintained the same prestige and played an important role in the political life of the country ( the revolt against the Turks against the French colonization ) .
Brotherhoods and Zoui who played an important religious and political role in North Africa were: The Qadéria and Chadélia . The first had spread from East to West , thanks to its great sheikhs from renowned schools " east with Egypt. The second spread from Abou Zeid Abderrahman El Madani had spread to the west with a few followers in the East. Meles , the first general movements the country, the one and the other suffered against the agreement of the political rulers . at the end of the fifteenth century , Ahmed Ben Youcef , the order of Qadéria , hunted for its doctrine by the emissaries of the Sultan of Tlemcen , he found asylum in Bejaia to the Sultan . Later, he embraced the party of the Turks, who was an active supporter . having obtained special provisions for his fraternity , and then his whole Khouan , his successors were the best tools for the Turkish domination. They also used to resolve local disputes to fight their opponents.
The French followed the Turkish policy in this area by supporting some Brotherhood leaders and movements against Zoui restructuring led by the Ulema .
Mouloud GAID - From " HISTORY AND ITS REGION BEJAIA " from ancient times up to the 1954 - 1976 Edition MIMOUNI
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[21] History of the Berbers Volume II , p p . 571
[22] Augustus Court - . Chorfa establish dynasties of Morocco , p . 8 .
[23] Marmol - a description. North , p.12 .
[*] All the brotherhoods for members ( Khouan ) mostly Berbers .