No one was surprised that whoever wanted by the brutal attack Moroccan forces against border points Tindjoub and Hassi Beida north of Bechar , at the end of September 1963.
The chthonic duo Hassan II- Oufkir had indeed launched in the fall his troops to " reoccupy " the two hamlets located on a path that connects the Algerian border areas of northwest Tindouf , in the extreme west of the young republic .
In fact, the western neighbors have always ogled east and south, seeking the construction of a hypothetical Grand Morocco legend whose boundaries imagined by the leaders of the Istiqlal , annexing a shot pencil generous quarter of north Africa , from Senegal to the limits of in Salah in the east.
South hatching gobbles up one-third of Mali , including Timbuktu , he simply retracts all Mauritania. Besides the Sahara o ccidental . With this flat the royal palace is not advised so to tickle Franco's Spain , which did not have enough humor to accept expansionist " jokes " of the monarchy chérifienne on Ceuta and Melilla , for example. Outraged by this stab in the African countries that built their organization , the OAU, but the Arabs "united" in their eponymous league tended an accusing finger towards Morocco.
Inviolability of borders
A reprehensible act, especially as the OAU Charter in its preamble noted that there is no "one African country that does not have a problem with borders with neighboring states." The document warned : "This fatal vestige of colonialism may lead us into wars ... Only African Unity can heal the infected border disputes between our various states wound ."
Malian Modibo Keita thought about it that "if we are really one and the other animated ardent desire to African Unity requires that we take Africa as it is , we must renounce territorial claims if we do not want to establish in Africa what might be called the imperialism ... the black African Unity requires each of us with full respect for the heritage we have received from the colonial system , that is ie maintaining the current boundaries of our respective countries . "
President of Madagascar Tsiranana sinks further nail and insists on " uti posidetis " African , ie the principle of the inviolability of borders . He states that "it is not possible to change the borders of Nations on behalf of racial or religious grounds ... because indeed if we took to test our boundaries of race, tribe or religion , there would be in Africa States that would be erased from the map ... ".
Wisdom will have prevailed and the founding fathers of the OAU solemnly proclaimed " the inviolability of borders inherited from colonization ." The Moroccan aggression against Algeria is thus perceived by continental states as the first snub to a charter immediately passed immediately raped by one of its members . Member who is leaving the organization in 1982, after the admission of the SADR ( Democratic Republic of Sahara) . But it is worth noting that two members among the thirty meeting in Addis Ababa in May 1963, Somalia and Morocco would make "reservations" .
Upon accession to the Charter , September 19, 1963 , Rabat expressed his restraint , saying: "As regards the implementation of safeguarding the territorial integrity of Morocco , through its authentic borders, it is important that one knows that the signature of the Charter of the OAU in no way be construed as an express or implied recognition of accomplished facts , as far as allowed by Morocco, or a waiver to the continued implementation of our rights by legitimate means at our disposal ... ".
So led by its chronic territorial appetites , our neighbor the right to accommodate sauces moment. When the French colonialists landed in Algeria in 1830 and it is spread by a rare violence to the limits of the current borders of Algeria, the Moroccan monarchy has refrained from sending its troops to oppose the invader .
Heavy price paid by Algeria
This is the real people of this country who paid tribute to the resistance. For over 125 years , the palace remained silent before the crimes committed against Algerians. If one square meter of the land really belonged to him , that he has opposed the repression against its "subjects." When the Algerians have resolved to break free and the proposal of a flashover Maghreb was made not novembristes , Moroccan independence declined the offer , arguing that "Algeria was a colony and a protectorate Morocco " . Thus, in 1963, while Algeria again had to adjust the taxation of blood to the story , these are our neighbors who claim a territory for which they have never lifted a finger .
The law does not regent history. The fad of " Fabulous Morocco " a compromise sustainable major projects a harmonious construction of a politically and economically coherent and homogeneous strong Maghreb group . When Germany and France permanently ranged weapons with the Elysée Treaty ( January 1963) and its signatories , President Charles de Gaulle and Chancellor Konrad Adenauer gave a fiery impetus to the European Economic Community (EEC ) , the forerunner of the EU, the Maghreb , he had undeniable advantages to unite around a bold plan construction, sank in what Arabs do best : disunity. Here are the Moroccan claims parent sounding epithets like " historic " and then "legitimate" , "authentic" , etc. . We speak of "right."
The ambition of the kingdom of Morocco create great
Morocco, support its officials had made public since 1956 's "claims" inheritance . France, eager to help curb the Moroccan fighting Algeria hinted Morocco, newly freed from the protectorate , the possibility of revising the border line in exchange for the termination of the sanctuary of the patriots of the FLN. King Mohammed V , who had considered the Algerian people found the indecent proposal . But he still seized up the ball , since the dawn feeling Algerian independence , he will try in July 1961 by an "agreement " to snatch a promise the President of the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic (GPRA ) Ferhat Abbas. Actually "promise ," the commitment of the Algerian part merely to commit to " discuss these issues " with any party would have to make the request.
In 1963, the blasters Istiqlal raged, balk and threaten . They shout to " ingratitude " of Algerian leaders . We marched rotary and pull great fanfare this "famous " map that traces the great Morocco in terms of ambitions , it must be said , the medieval palace and still shows up today and textbooks . For the neighbor is a good opportunity to disgorge the descendants of overweening fellaghas . Especially an internal conflict between rival groups. Hocine Ait Ahmed, former cellmate with Ben Bella , Khider , Bitat , Boudiaf after the arrest of the Moroccan plane carrying them in October 1956 created the Socialist Forces Front (FFS) . He organized a bush which opposes the newly elected president. Indeed, Ben Bella became the Head of Government " did prepare" a draft constitution that he " passed " August 28, 1963 by the Assembly. The Basic Law is "approved" by referendum and promulgated on September 8 .
On the 10th, he " elected " to the presidency of the Republic. Five days later, no more , on 15 September, he suspended the constitution and October 3, he " gives " full powers ! Admit that in terms of "tropical democracy" , it is not more radical and timeliness !
Ait Ahmed and his supporters are responsible for the crime of high treason, bargain arose why deny it ?
Suddenly, things seem to calm down. Indeed, on 5 October, the spirited Minister Abdelaziz Bouteflika has just swap his suit minister of youth and sports coat against the Minister of Foreign Affairs after the assassination of Mohamed Khemisti in May 1963, met his Moroccan counterpart Rédha Guedira Oujda . Ben Bella a top - Hassan II is set. It never will .
On October 8 , the young ANP ( National People's Army ) defeated the Algerian and Moroccan FAR repossessed the two oasis Tindjoub and Hassi Beida. Journalists were not "embedded" but the war rages news .
Everyone remembers the effect of extraordinary popular mobilization that accompanied these events enhanced by the euphoria of fresh and fragile independence.
The good offices of the African presidents
The pathetic speech Ben Bella on the esplanade of Africa and its heartbreaking " Hagrouna ! " Have multiplied a thousand patriotic adrenaline in a yet exhausted by conflict 132 years people ... But people who were in the midst of nationalist puberty. Hadj Mohand Ouellet , historical leader of the wilaya III , engaged his troops alongside Ait Ahmed and FFS , decided to suspend its activities in the Kabyle mountains and sailed to Tindouf.
Military and diplomats on both sides are racing. Africa , flabbergasted , attends climbing. France, which occupied the base of Mers El Kebir, Bechar Reggane smirked . His press quips .
As a rugby scrum , the two belligerents , whose resources are still very limited with a clear advantage in terms of logistics and equipment for the Moroccans, are neutralized . Moroccans take Tindjoub , Algerians sink to Figuig . Driss Ben Omar El Alami Moroccan and Houari Boumediene Algerian Minister of Defence improvise and lack of resources they work on educated guesses . Better armed, Moroccans have a breakthrough in Tindouf.
Allies Algeria , Cuba ( 686 men) and the Nasserist Egypt (1000 men) are attentive . They offer their services as they have fighting units on alert . Ben Bella and contains the refuse they occur . Mediations are increasing.
Tunisia's Bourguiba, Ethiopian Haile Selassie , the Egyptian Nasser , everyone was his good offices .
Finally , the Modibo Keita of Mali and the Negus of Ethiopia who manage to pull off a cease- fire. The conflict triggered by Morocco, is described as " contrary to the principle of peaceful settlement of disputes solemnly affirmed by the Pact of the Arab League , the UN Charter and the Addis Ababa Charter." An ad hoc conference meeting in Bamako on 29 and 30 October 1963 , the Heads of State of Algeria , Ethiopia, Mali and Morocco discuss the ins and outs of this conflict unanimously qualified " fratricide ." The conference declared the cease -fire October 31, 1963 .