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domenica 8 novembre 2015

Algeria: facts and highlights of 2014-2015, summary trial

emeute.jpgIf it sometimes happens that facts and events are a problem, there are also constituting themselves serious problems calling for urgent solutions.
Such facts and events, it is much product from us during 2014 and 2015. Troubles, demonstrations, protest marches, spikes, and also sudden and serious incidents which occurred amid a serious economic crisis, enameled over national news.
Time and again, we had the feeling that the compass and rudder of the great ship "Algeria" caught in a stormy sea, were suddenly making its unruly particularly difficult and uncertain control. From these facts and events that are neither trivial nor obviously trivial, we are, as citizens, as witnesses unable, in spite of ourselves, to influence them. But because we immediately perceive the importance, meaning and scope, we react in our own way, taking notes carefully and, after removing what evidence is cyclical, temporary or accidental, we try to enact those who are likely to shape the course of events. It is not impossible, indeed, found later some of them enrolled in the great book of history. These facts and events are many and varied, and therefore difficult to identify hierarchically. However, for clarity of this consolidated statement, we classified them into paragraphs which has been given a title that summarizes the content.
The case of Mzab: it revealed
The Mzab has more than once ignited between 2014 and 2015. There have been deaths, injuries, and looting of property. It has been, through ICT, widely used in Algeria, the shocked witnesses, crowds of similar movements for pogroms, followed loads of police backed by military gendarmerie. High state officials had to go to the scene for the umpteenth time, to try to calm the situation. The fact is that mediation by local authorities has not worked. Neither members of the wilaya, all persuasions across the political nor the APC presidents or councilors of the municipalities nor the elected officials of the APW Ghardaia let alone the local representatives of political parties - from the majority opposition, or indeed the small civil society in this region to a handful of old religious and ancient clan leaders, are gone out to meet the demonstrators and protestors to hear their grievances, negotiate with them and try to restore calm. A question arises: if they had attempted to do, that their would have happened? I do not know it. For cons, I know the failure and the failure of national and local politicians have once again come to light, showing an obvious weakness of the representativeness of our "elected" both national and local at the same time as the serious democratic deficit affecting our assemblies "elected".
In Mzab as elsewhere, a dangerous gap has opened between elected and voters, between citizens and authorities. When there is no dialogue between the state and its citizens, the door is wide open to conflicts and confrontations.
When the secretary general of the FLN confesses
In high places, you begin to realize this dangerous reality, long concealed, as the secretary general of the FLN said recently, before the cadres and party activists gathered in Annaba and Oran, that according to the press, time electoral fraud, quotas and chkara was now over! A few days later, the Minister of Justice intervened in turn using the threat of criminal prosecution with the key stiff sentences against anyone in the future frauderait or attempts to defraud the elections. May God be praised ! We will perhaps one day attend really healthy and genuine elections and the electoral weight measure of political parties and those who aspire to govern us. If the brother Amar, although it has long lampooned for being, at one period of his life, "Cantor atque saltator" as Suetonius wrote about the Emperor Caligula, is a powerful and influential man. Also, we do not care his old trade. A saying he does not says that "there are no stupid job." In fact, Ronald Reagan was initially "a second-rate film actor, comedian bland and poor," says Wikipedia, before accessing the high office of President of the United States.
Until recently, the international press reported that voters in a country I do not remember the name chose to vote for a comedian comic preference to its competitor, a reputed veteran politician. So it happens that democracy sometimes grimace. For us, what matters is that the secretary general of the FLN has publicly acknowledged that all previous elections, they were national or local, were marred by fraud, falsification and corruption! It is very brave of this party leader who is always close to the point of being confused with it, except perhaps for a short period that is between 1991 and 1992. In the Qur'an, it is says in verse 26 of chapter 12 of Joseph: "Wa min ahliha chahidoun shahada ..." The brother Amar If the testimony is so authentic, Bachelor influential member of qualities of the system. But in doing so, the person has at the same time publicly discredited and delegitimized all elected official, including those of his party! This by cons is not without risk for all current elected and, indirectly, for himself.
We note also - because we must render unto Caesar what belongs to Caesar - the brother If Amar, in less than three years, completely reformed and even radically transformed the old political party, both human and structural and ideological, while docking in the office, in the most tightly as possible. This is almost the return of the single party that we are witnessing, but with the announcement that the next elections will be democratic, sincere and honest, which, we must admit, is quite ironic! Unless either where a clever way, subtle and sweet to believe that things will change when we do not touch the essential. Which is reminiscent of the deep replica of the novel (1958), entitled The Cheetah Tomasini Lampedusa, made into a film (1963) by Visconti: "If we want everything to remain as it is, we must change everything." D where hospitality rather reserved and even skeptical or downright suspicious that the assertions of the brother Amar If by opposition parties and some political personalities and other observers. Notable coincidence, the president promised in his last wishes addressed to the nation on the occasion of the commemoration of November 1st, that in future all votes are democratic, clean and honest. From this perspective, we can say that the brother Amar If managed to outshine most of his illustrious predecessors.
It takes the heat out of the case Mzab
Another fact revealed by the events of Mzab is that, contrary to the official Vulgate, the confrontations that took place this year had a pronounced community character. To deny it is to practice the ostrich policy, that is to say, hide the reality and truth, to escape his responsibilities. Very much indeed, confrontations broke out between two different groups of people by their ethnicity, their vernacular languages ​​and madhab adopted and observed by individuals forming these groups. No one can deny that Chaamba are of Arab origin and Maliki madhhab, while Mozabites are of Berber origin and Ibadi madhhab. This reminded, it must be emphasized: first that Mozabites and Chaamba are of Algerian nationality; secondly, they are the one and the other Arabic speakers, it being noted that Mozabites also speak a variety of Tamazight; third, they are all Muslim and quarto that these two communities live on the same territory, that of the M'Zab Valley. What unites Mozabites and Chaamba is the most significant and obviously stronger than the differences between them. This is the reality that no political or ideological gherbal can not hide. If the term "Mozabite community" and the word "community", however, continue to disturb or annoy some, then use to describe our compatriots in the region Mozabite term. Do not they say, usually the rest: the Kabyle, the Shuya, the Tuareg? If it displeases still make precede these terms by the Algerians and say Mozabite Algerians, Algerians Kabyle, chaouia Algerians, Algerians Tuareg. Such a formulation has the double merit of emphasizing what makes us a nation one and indivisible, and relativize what is likely to differentiate ourselves ethnically or linguistically.
Finally, look around us and beyond in the entire world and posons- ourselves this question: is there a single African state, a single Arab state, a single Muslim state, a single state in the entire universe, whose national population belong to one ethnic group, where all individuals are of the same race and from a single tribe, where all speak one and the same vernacular, where everyone has the same the same customs and traditions? He that is a country with a population as "eugenics" and "pure" want good report it! It is curious to see a people wholly and solely made up of clones!
Explanation of Mzab problems and possible solutions
But then how to explain the crises shaking sporadically Mzab?
In my view, the instability of Mzab three causes; one is old, the two others are new. The first is economic: the M'Zab Valley is a narrow, deprived territory in terms of natural resources. Some investment effort that we make it, we always come up against the physical and climatic constraints of this Saharan region: arable land and crops are limited, very low rainfall, water reserves insignificant and temperatures higher in summer and freezing in winter, at least overnight. The second is demographic. The density of the population living Mzab is strong. Hence the fact that the Mzab is a land of emigration, not immigration. Although I has no demographic statistics on this area, I think will not be far from the truth by saying that there are at least 20 to 25% Mozabites living outside Mzab in cities North and Central Highlands of the country. Clearly, there is not at Mzab enough room for everyone. We can not fix the population Mozabite home by the creation of new urban centers and agricultural and industrial areas, located in the vicinity of major urban centers of the valley. In other words, we need to think quickly and implement a management plan specific to this region territory. This mission falls, everyone can easily understand, the jurisdiction of the state and its responsibility.
The third cause of the deaf and lives latent tension in which this region is religious in nature. It is no secret that Wahhabism and Salafism are steadily rising in Algeria where they are seeking everywhere enemies to convert and failing to exterminate. In the south, they found their ideal enemy, in this case the Ibadi madhhab! Now if Salafism is new here, the Ibadi rite is against very old. The Ibadi presence in Algeria dates back at least 12 centuries and Algerian memory, Algeria has not experienced a religious war between Muslims or the Mzab or in any other region of the country.
The Ibadi have never, that I know, wanted to convert the Maliki rite and vice versa. But today, a kind of religious and civil war at a time is upon us, as some irresponsible, rather than remind the faithful the word of God who is all characterized by tolerance, wisdom and weighting and try to spread among people teaching of the Prophet (AAWSS), spend their time to divide Algerians, shouting in mosques, launching anathemas, and encouraging believers to disembowel each other.
These individuals strange behavior are convinced to be invested with a divine mission which consists in passing from life to death as possible countrymen. Again, it is clear that only depends on the state to end this serious religious drift that plagues Algerians at Mzab as in the rest of the country.
The In Salah disorders. Could we avoid them?
The town of In Salah and its immediate surroundings have known for a few weeks some excitement, some of the people who expressed opposition to the project cherished by the power to launch - Economic crisis forces - the drilling and operation of gas shale in this region specifically. But in Algeria, was, it seems, got used not to seek the opinion of the citizen to matters that concern and affect directly. Claiming to be omniscient, omnipotent and only guardian of the general interest, the administration will neither discuss nor dialogue with citizens. It seeks to impose its views and decide everything unilaterally. People must obey, and if recalcitrant, they will be forced into submission with batons. Incidentally, when a citizen wants to open a business or any unit of service or production, administration submits the realization of his project in an investigation "of stalk and incommodo" which aims to verify whether the said project has neither intrinsic hazard or nuisance to the neighborhood. By the administration against waiver of this survey, when it initiates a project while it is fully aware of its danger to humans and its pollution for the environment! On the occasion of shale gas project In Salah, Algerians were once again put to belabor, dividing into two camps fierce, pro and anti-shale gas. Hence sit-ins, marches, banners, virulent interventions in the press, disorder and unrest, central senior officials traveling at In Salah and sending on the scene, reinforcements police and gendarmes. But the In Salah region, this is a secret, is very sensitive: our borders with Libya and Mali are porous because of suspicious persons and dangerous weapons and ammunition are often intercepted by ANP and gendarmerie. Smuggling and drug trafficking are also flourishing if one believes the press. In these conditions, it is feared that the slightest incident beyond the control may not be the spark that will cause the dreaded big fire. In any case, we could avoid the messy unrest that gripped several weeks In Salah, peaceful town on the extreme south, where the central level, one had bothered and taken the time to inform the local population of what we planned to do, to explain the financial, economic and social benefits expected from this industrial project, exposing risk prevention measures for the protection of health of the inhabitants and the safety of persons, and finally announce what will be achieved in preserving the environment. Unfortunately, this kind of approach does not seem to be part of the culture of our politicians and our directors. In the case of the species, it is clear that information and communication direction of "indigenous populations" does not appear in the roadmap of supported frameworks managers carrying heavy economic and industrial projects. At In Salah, these executives were about to land on the site, probably in company of engineers and foreign experts, to turn their machines, their drills, pumps and pipelines, and for the rest of the time is locked in a "base camp" surrounded by barbed wire. Perhaps they thought, afterwards, do a little social recruiting locally some service agents, housekeepers and men penalty! The rest of the skilled workers they will continue as usual to bring the north.
The great march of police
2015 also saw happen something unheard of: a large protest march policemen. They were, it seems, more than a hundred uniformed but fortunately without arms, to walk in tight rows, their barracks Hamiz to the capital. The sky that day was gray and rainy low: a sad time for the occasion! The Algerians, who that morning went about their occupations, their eyes écarquillaient surprised by the presence, as massive and resolute, policemen in uniform, manifesting. It is incomprehensible ! The event is unprecedented indeed known in the history of our country. He did nothing especially reassuring. The police conducted a short sit-in outside the Government Palace, where the headquarters of two major institutions are, in this case the Prime Ministry and the Ministry of Interior.
They asked, apparently to meet a member of the government and their request was ignored, they decided to go for the presidency of the Republic, in the district of El-Mouradia.
A strong cord and heavily armed soldiers deployed to protect the Presidency awaited them. There, the worst could happen at any time was, however, patience, wisdom and the power of persuasion which then demonstrated certain members of the management of the national police. After a few hours of incredible tension, everything is back to normal peacefully. But an image will remain in people's minds.
Indeed, many will never forget the face-to-face that took place that day in Algiers between the state and its police. Was assigned to the Russian writer F. Dostoevsky this reflection that seems very relevant and I quote from memory: "A power that relies excessively on its police, may one day make him accountable . "But on this: what happened to the instigators and possibly the sponsors of this incredible adventure? And how is it possible that the columns of police marched on the capital and travel many kilometers without being stopped before reaching the Tafourah ramp? Who does not remember walking arouch who were stopped and dispersed between Tafourah Avenue ramp and ALN!
The steps of communal guards
It was also in 2014 and 2015, in Algiers and in other cities, many manifestations of communal guards. Although less threatening to public order and institutions, they are no less significant moral disorder that class of security officers who participated in the fight against terrorism and contributed to the restoration of peace in our country. It would have been inappropriate, in this paper, to ignore their protests and your inner motivations. We can not forget the important role played by communal guards in the fight against terrorism, to support the forces of the PNA. Despite their anger and was caused free, leaving strutting under the objectives of television cameras, the former terrorists they fought. It is incomprehensible to the communal guards and many other citizens that a former emir who publicly admitted committing a murder on a young soldier has been received, it was only as a repentant, to the Presidency of the Republic and filmed in a plush office in golds and paneling of the Republic. Ali Benhadj is still remembered wearing military fatigues, received by the Chief of Staff of the ANP, a few years ago: we know how the events had subsequently evolved. The recent remake of this improbable interview with protagonists this time the former emir of the AIS and Chief of Staff of the President of the Republic, is a new error of assessment of the situation or perhaps a political mistake. Very hostile statements made recently by the former emir of the former AIS amply prove, even if the person, realizing the seriousness of his words, decided himself or on his urgent intervention friends and advisors to make amends.
The case of the DRS, its developments and implications
2015 will remain, whatever happens later, the year when the most powerful security service, the most secret and most feared of Algeria, namely the DRS, saw its overall organization and its ramifications, in the structures of the state and society, spread out in the open and deep whack by a series of measures of authority as service cuts, guardianship transfers, transfers and retirements of officers with important positions. In truth, it was as if a powerful tropical cyclone ravaged and had suddenly crossed the DND department that has always depended, in a completely reliable first-hand witness, in this case a former defense minister and former member of the High -Board of state, plus the Presidency of the Republic that the Department of National Defence. In addition, we saw several generals and colonels as DRS and in the wake of other officers of various bodies falling like ninepins game of the same name. Two strong impressions we remain afterwards: the first is that this department had a plethora of general officers and senior officers. I do not know how the workforce can rise, even theoretical, generals and colonels serving in a "corps", a "brigade" or "division" in operation, but I find that particularly high DRS. The second is that intelligence activities and DRS actions were mainly focused and oriented "towards the domestic peril," economic crime and the fight against corruption, while most of these skills should have been entrusted usefully Civil security services. In most countries, in fact, care is taken to separate, say to make simple, internal security missions and external security missions. They are assigned to distinct and separate services, each within the army, the other of civil authority, and that's fair enough. As saying goes, it's never good to put all eggs in one basket. But this does not prevent separate departments and separate them to cooperate and coordinate their actions. Thus in any case it happens in democratic states. But the surprise caused by the deep upheaval operated at DRS has turned downright profound discomfort when the arrests were made public two general and the decisions terminating the functions of two other generals for related reasons, will appear -he, as it is commonly called the incident the residence Zéralda, and finally the great movement that affected officials and judges of military justice. This movement had intervened when a major general had been brought before a military tribunal, that the constitution of the Algiers barrister lawyers to defend this general had been rejected by the tribunal for reasons remained unknown, another lawyer was challenging because the barrister had been forbidden to represent the general arrested and remanded in custody, that a third lawyer authorized by the court to protest against the irregularities which, in his view, marred the process and that Finally, a lieutenant of the Republican Guard or perhaps presidential, who was on duty at the residence of Zeralda, was sentenced to three years imprisonment for shooting a burst of Kalashnikov during his service at the residence. It may be that all these coincidences are simply fortuitous, it may also be that they do not and that the acts are linked together by a link of cause and effect. One day perhaps we will be fixed.
Justice, economic crimes and corruption cases
We note the year 2015, she was the one in which justice evacuated, according to the word of the judicial jargon, oh so evocative, three economic affairs and corruption, particularly emblematic of the degree of moral decay achieved by the economic and financial sphere of the country these past ten or fifteen years. These are business Khalifa, Sonatrach and East-West Highway. Courts have sat for several days and have issued verdicts. However, can we say that justice has been done? Can we say that all criminals were prosecuted and convicted? That sentences are deserved and proportionate to the crimes committed? You can argue long on these topics because these inherently subjective questions, we can only give subjective responses. The question we should ask is against by the following: the penalties imposed in the three cases cited above are they going to reduce embezzlement and corruption? For the criminal conviction is not a function "retribution," as criminologists and criminal lawyers, that is to say only a "punitive" function (we punish the author of evil in him inflicting harm). It also has a "deterrent" function or intimidation. Criminologists and legal experts believe that criminal convictions are handed down at the same time they punish the guilty, be cautions and warnings for all those tempted to commit offenses. In short, the individual punishment of crimes and offenses is in principle a means of general prevention of delinquency. I would add to close this chapter on economic affairs and judged corruption in 2015, a former minister who had the guardianship of Sonatrach is still on the loose, like a common bandit. Curiously, it is not, it is believed, pursued by the Algerian justice. But it is the subject of criminal proceedings, together with a "golden boy" of Algerian origin, in a corruption case opened by the Milan court. This case will be tried, they say, by the end of this year.
ConclusionLe during 2014-2015 of news is marked by facts and events that immediately arise essential landmarks in obvious tags. It is the role of chronicler and observer to note them hot, as they arise, to identify them scrupulously to allow detailed further examination and objective analysis by others, especially by historians. This is indeed where significant facts and crucial events occur that are realized radical ruptures that occur profound changes, that appear new trends and open new perspectives. It is also of utmost importance, when after a long and difficult journey, we arrive at a crossroads devoid of reliable signaling, know what path it is best to engage, in order to avoid a surplus of pains and disappointments, this applies to nations as well as individuals.
Z. S.
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